Nepal’s cabinet has released a new political map of Nepal in a landmark decision. In this map, Limpiyadhura Kalapani and Lipulekh are shown as part of the Nepal border.
The Cabinet of Nepal, while giving it its legitimate claim, said that the source of Mahakali (Sharda) river is actually Limpiyadhura which is currently part of Uttarakhand in India.
India has been denying this.
The decision of Nepal’s cabinet came ten days after the inauguration of the border road in the Lipulekh area from India. Tibet is the only way to go to Mansarovar in China via script. After this road was built, Nepal had strongly opposed India’s move.
India’s opposition to the move was seen in Kathmandu from the Parliament of Nepal to the streets of Kathmandu.
In fact, six months ago India released its new political map in which the state of Jammu and Kashmir was shown as two union territories Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.
In this map, Limpiyadhura, Kalapani and Lipulekh were described as part of India. Nepal has been claiming these areas for a long time.
Nepal’s Minister of Agriculture and Cooperative Affairs Ghanshyam Bhusal told Kantipur television, “This is a new beginning. But this is not a new thing. We have always been saying that the east part of Mahakali river belongs to Nepal. Now the government Has officially added it to the map as well. “
However, Bhusal has also said that diplomatic negotiations with Delhi will continue for an official solution to this issue.
It is believed that talks between the two countries will take place after the Kovid-19 crisis.
After the decision of the Nepali cabinet on Monday, it is believed that the government of Nepal will ask its officials and local bodies to use the new map in government offices. This map will also be taught in educational institutions and will be shared with other partners.
After India’s ‘unilateral decision’ to inaugurate new roads through Kalapani and Gunji to Lipulek, Nepal reiterated its old claims on Kalapani and Lipulek areas and conveyed the concerns of Natal to India’s Ambassador to Kathmandu and the Indian Foreign Ministry Was
Earlier, Nepal had said that the road that India has built on ‘its land’, that land can be given to India on lease but the claim cannot be left on it.
On Wednesday, an all-party meeting was called by Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli on the script conscription, in which former Prime Ministers also took part.
The script is the area which borders China, Nepal and India.
Nepal is angry about this step of India. The process of anti-India protests in Nepal regarding the issue of alleged ‘encroachment’ in the script is also going on.
In this connection, Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli’s government has also lodged a diplomatic protest in strong words, reiterating Nepal’s claim to the scripted area before India.
Darchula district of Nepal falls on the banks of Mahakali river in the east of Dharchula in Uttarakhand. The Mahakali river also serves as the border of Nepal-India.
The Nepal government says that India has built a 22-km long road in its scripted area.
Nepal had earlier also expressed its opposition to India in November of 2019.
In 2015, when China and India reached an agreement to promote trade and commerce, Nepal had officially lodged a protest before the two countries.
Nepal says that neither India nor China took it into confidence for this agreement while the proposed road was to pass through its territory.
Nepal’s decision on sending force
This week, when anti-India protests were at its peak in Kathmandu, Nepal made another big decision on Wednesday.
He has sent a team of the Armed Police Force (APF) to the border area along the Mahakali river for the first time. The APF has set up a border post in Chhangroo village, adjacent to Kalapani.
The structure of the APF is similar to that of the Armed Border Force of India and the Indo-Tibetan Border Police.
204 years after the signing of the Treaty of Sugauli in 1816, Nepal has finally taken steps to protect its territory bordering three countries.
After the two years of the UK-Nepal war, this agreement was reached, under which Nepal had to relinquish control of the won land on the western side of Mahakali river.
After the Kalapani dispute, protests in Kathmandu this week over script writing and the Indo-Nepal diplomatic outcry have once again soured relations between the two countries.
However, barring a few issues of dispute, the relations between the two countries have been almost cordial in recent times.
This month, Prime Minister Narendra Modi and KP Sharma Oli had committed to remain united against the pandemic of Kovid-19.
But the road building incident in Lipulekh has angered many Nepalis.
Even Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli had to make it clear that “Nepal will not leave even an inch of its land”.
1800 km long border
In such a situation, the question arises that will the Indo-Nepal friendship end due to the sudden script writing dispute?
Why is this mountainous region originating from the Mahakali river so important to Nepal?
And this question is equally important, why is script writing so important for India strategically?
Many Indian analysts on Nepal-India relations say, “No two countries are as close as India-Nepal are in terms of civilization, culture, history and geography.”
But on the 1800-km-long border, there are many border disputes that never end.
The borders of the two countries are mostly open and slanted. However, now the deployment of security forces has increased to guard the border.
It is more difficult that the boundaries of the two countries have not been completely determined.
In the areas where the rivers like Mahakali (Sharda) and Gandak (Narayani) decide the demarcation, the picture changes with the floods during the monsoon days.
The attitude of rivers also varies from year to year. In many places, the old pillars setting the boundary are still standing, but the local people do not appreciate them.
Under normal circumstances, people start moving from one country to another.
Treaty of Sugauli
Survey officials and technicians from India and Nepal have not been able to make any such map on which both countries agree, despite the common efforts of years.
According to the report of Budhi Narayan Shrestha, former Director-General of the Survey Department of Nepal, India and Nepalese authorities together prepared the map in the years 1850 and 1856.
According to Budhi Narayan Shrestha, the Mahakali river originates from Limpiyadhura (16 km northwest of Kalapani) and in the Treaty of Sugauli, this river was given the border of both the countries, so it proves that Kalapani is part of Nepal.
But India refuses to accept these maps as evidence. The Indian side says that its place should be considered on the map of 1875 in which the origin of Mahakali river was shown in the east of Kalapani.
Significantly, there is no signature of Nepal on the 1875 map.
Officials in Kathmandu who have knowledge on the matter say that most of the work of determining the border of Nepal and India has been completed, although this work has not been completed in the riverine areas.
The Mahakali River on the western border of Nepal and the Gandak River on the southern border determine the boundary of both countries, but the work of fixing the map here is still incomplete.
Survey officials and technicians from both countries have not been able to agree on the demarcation of points on the Mahakali and Gandak rivers as the flow of rivers varies.
The trend of these rivers has been continuously changing over the decades. The Lipulekh dispute is related to such area.
Nepal has been saying that Lipulekh mountain is situated to the east of Mahakali river, due to which this area naturally becomes part of Nepal and this is also clearly stated in the Treaty of Sugauli.
Source of Mahakali River
According to the Encyclopaedia Britannicca, the Treaty of Sugauli formally ended the Britain-Nepal War. Under the terms of the treaty, Nepal had relinquished its claim to the contiguous terrain of the Terai and the land it had won on the banks of the Sutlej River west of the Mahakali River.
If the Treaty of Sugauli clearly states that the east side of the Mahakali river belongs to Nepal, then where is the problem?
Nepali historians and survey officials say that the misconception between the two countries is about where the origin of the Mahakali river is? And this is the root of the dispute.
Therefore, the question arises that from where does the Mahakali River originate? From the hills of Limpiyadhura or from Lipulekh?
Nepal’s national politics
Two small rivers meet near Gunji village, where the border road to Lipulekh was opened last Friday. One stream comes out of the hills of Limpiyadhura in the southeast and the other stream comes from Lipulekh in the south.
The issue of Mahakali-Kalapani has been arising in Nepal’s national politics for more than three decades.
Nepal experts and officials say that the Mahakali River originates from Limpiyadhura and rises in the northwest towards Uttarakhand in India.
But on the contrary, the Indian side says that the Mahakali river is facing north east towards Nepal. He says that the water stream coming out of the script is actually the source of the Mahakali river and from this the boundaries of the two neighboring countries are determined.
Kailash Mansarovar Yatra Route
India defended the decision on Nepal’s strong response after the roadway opened for scripture on May 8, stating that no Nepalese territory has been encroached upon and that the route road to the traditional religious pilgrimage to Kailash Mansarovar It has been made at
But Nepali historians, officials and the people of Gunji village (from where India opened the road to Lipulekh on May 8) say that the Nepali side has enough evidence that according to the Treaty of Sugauli, the Lipulek and Many villages in that area fall under the Nepali region.
The dispute is also about other areas. The Government of Nepal has been consistently emphasizing that apart from Lipulekh and Gunji village, India has also ‘occupied’ the areas adjoining it to the north of the Mahakali river which includes Kalapani.
ITBP established its outpost in 1950 during the Indo-China war in Kalapani. Apart from this, there is a dispute between the two countries about Limpiyadhura located in the far west.
Many Nepali officials and journalists have gathered their Nepali documents with the local people after visiting Kalapani in the past decades.
These include the Gunji village adjoining Lipulekh and the surrounding villages of Kalpani.
India continues to dismiss Nepal’s claim
The Indian Embassy in Kathmandu and its Foreign Ministry, while trying to calm the atmosphere on its own, have said that these issues will be discussed at the Foreign Secretary level talks of the two countries.
Anti-India slogans are echoing from Parliament to the street in Nepal, and yet the dispute between the two countries over the black water or the script has not been resolved.
Goods receipt and voter identity card
Officials of the Survey Department of Nepal say that Lipulekh and Kalapani are remote areas in the Himalayan region where it is very difficult to reach and there is no human population living there.
This is the reason why Nepal did not set up a border security post and focus on basic development like road or bridge.
Officials also say that in addition to the Treaty of Sugauli, Nepal has more evidence, including letters written by the British authorities before the signing of the treaty and documents of that period. The local people of Nepal Kalapani and Gunji are also showing the proof of receipt and identity card of Nepali voters.
Apart from this, the Indian saint Yogi Bhagwan Srihans who visited Mansarovar in the year 1908 and Swami Pranavanand who visited there in their thirties and forties also elaborated in their travel memoirs about the presence of Nepali security personnel in Chhangroo village south of Lipulekh written.